Cisco Security Advisory
Cisco IOS XE Software Ethernet Virtual Private Network Border Gateway Protocol Denial of Service Vulnerability
A vulnerability in the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) over an Ethernet Virtual Private Network (EVPN) for Cisco IOS XE Software could allow an unauthenticated, remote attacker to cause the device to reload, resulting in a denial of service (DoS) condition, or potentially corrupt the BGP routing table, which could result in network instability.
The vulnerability exists due to changes in the implementation of the BGP MPLS-Based Ethernet VPN RFC (RFC 7432) draft between IOS XE software releases. When the BGP Inclusive Multicast Ethernet Tag Route or BGP EVPN MAC/IP Advertisement Route update packet is received, it could be possible that the IP address length field is miscalculated. An attacker could exploit this vulnerability by sending a crafted BGP packet to an affected device after the BGP session was established. An exploit could allow the attacker to cause the affected device to reload or corrupt the BGP routing table; either outcome would result in a DoS.
The Cisco implementation of the BGP protocol only accepts incoming BGP traffic from explicitly defined peers. To exploit this vulnerability, an attacker must be able to send the malicious packets over a TCP connection that appears to come from a trusted BGP peer, or inject malformed messages into the victim's BGP network. This would require obtaining information about the BGP peers in the affected system's trusted network.
The vulnerability may be triggered when the router receives a crafted BGP message from a peer on an existing BGP session. At least one BGP neighbor session must be established for a router to be vulnerable.
There are no workarounds that address this vulnerability.
This advisory is available at the following link:
This vulnerability affects all releases of Cisco IOS XE Software prior to software release 16.3 that support BGP EVPN configurations. If the device is not configured for EVPN, it is not vulnerable.
Determining the Cisco IOS XE Software Release
To determine which Cisco IOS XE Software release is running on a device, administrators can log in to the device, use the show version command in the CLI, and then refer to the system banner that appears. If the device is running Cisco IOS XE Software, the system banner displays Cisco IOS Software, Cisco IOS XE Software, or similar text.
The following example shows the output of the command for a device that is running Cisco IOS XE Software Release 16.2.1 and has an installed image name of CAT3K_CAA-UNIVERSALK9-M:
ios-xe-device# show version
Cisco IOS Software, Catalyst L3 Switch Software (CAT3K_CAA-UNIVERSALK9-M), Version Denali 16.2.1, RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1)
Technical Support: http://www.cisco.com/techsupport
Copyright (c) 1986-2016 by Cisco Systems, Inc.
Compiled Sun 27-Mar-16 21:47 by mcpre
For information about the naming and numbering conventions for Cisco IOS XE Software releases, see White Paper: Cisco IOS and NX-OS Software Reference Guide. For additional information on EVPN configurations, see Carrier Ethernet Configuration Guide.
Products Confirmed Not Vulnerable
No other Cisco products are currently known to be affected by this vulnerability.
Cisco has confirmed that this vulnerability does not affect Cisco IOS XR Software and Cisco NX-OS Software.
There are no workarounds that address this vulnerability.
Cisco has released free software updates that address the vulnerability described in this advisory. Cisco will continue to provide fixes for affected releases as they become available.
When considering software upgrades, customers are advised to regularly consult the advisories for Cisco products, which are available from the Cisco Security Advisories and Alerts page, to determine exposure and a complete upgrade solution.
In all cases, customers should ensure that the devices to be upgraded contain sufficient memory and confirm that current hardware and software configurations will continue to be supported properly by the new release. If the information is not clear, customers are advised to contact the Cisco Technical Assistance Center (TAC) or their contracted maintenance providers.
Cisco IOS XE Software
This vulnerability is fixed in IOS XE software releases 16.3 and later.
To help customers determine their exposure to vulnerabilities in Cisco IOS XE Software, Cisco provides a tool, the Cisco IOS Software Checker, that identifies any Cisco Security Advisories that impact a specific software release and the earliest release that fixes the vulnerabilities described in each advisory (“First Fixed”). If applicable, the tool also returns the earliest release that fixes all the vulnerabilities described in all the advisories identified (“Combined First Fixed”).
Customers can use this tool to perform the following tasks:
- Initiate a search by choosing one or more releases from a drop-down menu or uploading a file from a local system for the tool to parse
- Enter the output of the show version command for the tool to parse
- Create a custom search by including all previously published Cisco Security Advisories, a specific advisory, or all advisories in the most recent bundled publication
To determine whether a release is affected by any published Cisco Security Advisory, use the Cisco IOS Software Checker on Cisco.com or enter a Cisco IOS XE Software release-for example, 15.1(4)M2-in the following field:
In March 2022, the Cisco Product Security Incident Response Team (PSIRT) became aware of additional attempted exploitation of this vulnerability in the wild. Cisco continues to strongly recommend that customers upgrade to a fixed software release to remediate this vulnerability.
This vulnerability was reported to Cisco by a customer via a Cisco TAC case.
To learn about Cisco security vulnerability disclosure policies and publications, see the Security Vulnerability Policy. This document also contains instructions for obtaining fixed software and receiving security vulnerability information from Cisco.
Version Description Section Status Date 1.2 Updated exploitation information. Exploitation and Public Announcements Final 2022-DEC-16 1.1 Added a second Cisco bug identifier: CSCui67191. Product Attribute Set Final 2017-NOV-07 1.0 Initial public release. - Final 2017-NOV-03
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